Comorbidities in heart failure: are there gender differences?

Ingrid Hopper, Dipak Kotecha, Ken Chin, Robert J. Mentz, Thomas von Lueder

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


Compared to men, women with heart failure (HF) are often older, smoke less, and have more preserved ejection fraction (EF) and hypertensive HF rather than HF of ischemic etiology. Gender-stratified outcomes on comorbidities data in HF are scarce. Women have traditionally been underrepresented in HF trials. Although data suggest that overall prognosis may be better in women, they experience lower quality of life with greater functional impairment from HF compared to men. Gender differences have been reported for comorbid diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal dysfunction, anemia, and depression and may explain gender disparity in outcomes. However, possible confounding of comorbidities with known prognostic determinants in HF (such as EF) as well as gender differences in the utilization of medical therapies obscures interpretation. In this review, we will explore the evidence for gender differences in non-cardiovascular comorbidities in HF. Our findings may guide clinicians to individualize HF care, according to best practice, in the hope of improving prognosis for this chronic and debilitating condition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent Heart Failure Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016


  • Anemia
  • Arthritis
  • Comorbidity
  • COPD
  • Diabetes
  • Ejection fraction
  • Heart failure
  • Renal dysfunction

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