Combining modelling with advanced experimental techniques to optimize formulation and nozzle design for low GWP pMDIs

Daniel J. Duke, Dung Nguyen, Harry Scott, AJ Kusangaya, Alan L Kastengren, David Schmidt, Damon Honnery

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperOther


The design of the next generation of pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) will be driven by the transition to low global warming potential (GWP) propellants. One of the major design challenges is the optimization of the actuator nozzle to achieve equivalent or improved outcomes to current generation devices. Thermophysical property changes and a myriad of fluid-mechanical effects complicate the link between formulation and nozzle design. In this paper, using model solution formulations of hydrofluoroalkane 134a (HFA-134a) and HFA-152a propellants, state of the art X-ray and optical diagnostic tools for pMDI sprays are combined with advanced computer modelling to identify and test new nozzle designs that can be
optimized for use with low GWP propellants.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of Respiratory Drug Delivery 2021
PublisherVirginia Commonwealth University
Publication statusPublished - 4 May 2021
EventRespiratory Drug Delivery 2021 - Online, United States of America
Duration: 4 May 20217 May 2021


ConferenceRespiratory Drug Delivery 2021
Abbreviated titleRDD 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States of America
Internet address

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