Collusion resistant fingerprinting of digital audio

Andrew Z. Tirkel, Thomas Hall, Charles Osborne, Nicholas Meinhold, Oscar Moreno

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Digital fingerprinting is a technique for tracing the distribution of multimedia content, and protecting it from unauthorized manipulation. Unique identification information is embedded into each distributed copy of the signal. In a collusion attack, fingerprints are combined to remove or distort the fingerprints. Audio signals are good candidates for fingerprinting, because of the forgiving nature of the human auditory system to cross-talk between channels. We use principal components of the audio signal to construct an abstract vector space. The fingerprints are ordered rotations in that space. The rotations are determined by arrays with good correlation properties. These arrays are embedded in real audio, and are imperceptible, according to a panel of experts. These fingerprints are resistant to an averaging collusion attack by hundreds or thousands of colluders, and can withstand a worst case RandNeg attack by up to 30 colluders.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 4th international conference on Security of information and networks
EditorsJoseph Pieprzk
Place of PublicationNew York NY USA
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9781450310208
Publication statusPublished - 2011
EventInternational Conference on Security of Information and Networks 2011 - Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Sydney, Australia
Duration: 14 Nov 201119 Nov 2011
Conference number: 4th

Publication series

NameInternational Conference Proceedings Series


ConferenceInternational Conference on Security of Information and Networks 2011
Abbreviated titleSIN 2011
Internet address


  • array
  • audio
  • collusion
  • fingerprint
  • traitor tracing
  • watermark

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