Colloidal deposit of an evaporating sessile droplet on a non-uniformly heated substrate

Laxman K. Malla, Rajneesh Bhardwaj, Adrian Neild

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27 Citations (Scopus)


The pattern and profile of a dried colloidal deposit formed after evaporation of a sessile water droplet containing polystyrene particles on a non-uniformly heated glass are investigated experimentally. In particular, the effects of temperature gradient across the substrate and particles size are investigated. The temperature gradient was imposed using Peltier coolers, and side visualization, infrared thermography, optical microscopy, and optical profilometry were employed to collect the data. On a uniformly heated substrate, a ring with an inner deposit is obtained, which is attributed to axisymmetric Marangoni recirculation and is consistent with previous reports. However, the dimensions of the ring formed on a non-uniformly heated substrate are significantly different on the hot and cold side of the substrate and are found to be a function of the temperature gradient and particles size. In the case of smaller particle size, the contact line on hot side depins and together with twin asymmetric Marangoni recirculations, it results in a larger ring width on the cold side as compared to the hot side. In contrast, the contact line remains pinned in case of larger particles, and the twin asymmetric Marangoni recirculations advect more particles on the hot side, resulting in a larger ring width at the hot side. A mechanistic model is employed to explain why the depinning is dependent on the particle size. A larger temperature gradient significantly increases or decreases the ring width depending on the particle size, due to a stronger intensity recirculation. A regime map is proposed for the deposit patterns on temperature gradient-particle size plane to classify the deposits.

Original languageEnglish
Article number124009
Number of pages15
JournalColloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2020


  • Coffee-ring effect
  • Colloidal deposit
  • Evaporating sessile droplet
  • Marangoni recirculation

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