With 21,136 MW of wind energy installed in 2014, India is considered a success story in terms of net installed capacity. Few existing studies on Indian wind energy have highlighted the important role of institutions, and how they stemmed from the work of advocacy groups; studies also tend to focus on short time periods. This paper uses the notion of collective institutional entrepreneurship to analyze Indian wind energy across three time periods (1985-1995, 1995-2003, and 2003-2013). The analysis shows that Indian wind power development was driven by collective efforts of institutional entrepreneurs using two aggregated strategies, that is, supportive techno-economic and socio-political networks and an indigenous innovation infrastructure. The paper highlights setbacks, controversies, and tensions between various entrepreneurship groups and argues that actions must be taken for including actors who have been marginalized.
- Collective institutional entrepreneurship
- Wind energy