Cognitive reserve attenuates age-related cognitive decline in the context of putatively accelerated brain ageing in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

Tamsyn E. Van Rheenen, Vanessa Cropley, Birgitte Fagerlund, Cassandra Wannan, Jason Bruggemann, Rhoshel K. Lenroot, Suresh Sundram, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Thomas W. Weickert, Andrew Zalesky, Chad A. Bousman, Christos Pantelis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

BackgroundIn schizophrenia, relative stability in the magnitude of cognitive deficits across age and illness duration is inconsistent with the evidence of accelerated deterioration in brain regions known to support these functions. These discrepant brain-cognition outcomes may be explained by variability in cognitive reserve (CR), which in neurological disorders has been shown to buffer against brain pathology and minimize its impact on cognitive or clinical indicators of illness.MethodsAge-related change in fluid reasoning, working memory and frontal brain volume, area and thickness were mapped using regression analysis in 214 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 168 healthy controls. In patients, these changes were modelled as a function of CR.ResultsPatients showed exaggerated age-related decline in brain structure, but not fluid reasoning compared to controls. In the patient group, no moderation of age-related brain structural change by CR was evident. However, age-related cognitive change was moderated by CR, such that only patients with low CR showed evidence of exaggerated fluid reasoning decline that paralleled the exaggerated age-related deterioration of underpinning brain structures seen in all patients.ConclusionsIn schizophrenia-spectrum illness, CR may negate ageing effects on fluid reasoning by buffering against pathologically exaggerated structural brain deterioration through some form of compensation. CR may represent an important modifier that could explain inconsistencies in brain structure - cognition outcomes in the extant literature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalPsychological Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 9 Jul 2019

Keywords

  • Cognitive subgroups
  • compensation
  • crystallized intelligence
  • fluid intelligence
  • intellectual enrichment
  • neuroprotection
  • premorbid IQ
  • verbal intelligence

Cite this

Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E. ; Cropley, Vanessa ; Fagerlund, Birgitte ; Wannan, Cassandra ; Bruggemann, Jason ; Lenroot, Rhoshel K. ; Sundram, Suresh ; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon ; Weickert, Thomas W. ; Zalesky, Andrew ; Bousman, Chad A. ; Pantelis, Christos. / Cognitive reserve attenuates age-related cognitive decline in the context of putatively accelerated brain ageing in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In: Psychological Medicine. 2019 ; pp. 1-15.
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title = "Cognitive reserve attenuates age-related cognitive decline in the context of putatively accelerated brain ageing in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders",
abstract = "BackgroundIn schizophrenia, relative stability in the magnitude of cognitive deficits across age and illness duration is inconsistent with the evidence of accelerated deterioration in brain regions known to support these functions. These discrepant brain-cognition outcomes may be explained by variability in cognitive reserve (CR), which in neurological disorders has been shown to buffer against brain pathology and minimize its impact on cognitive or clinical indicators of illness.MethodsAge-related change in fluid reasoning, working memory and frontal brain volume, area and thickness were mapped using regression analysis in 214 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 168 healthy controls. In patients, these changes were modelled as a function of CR.ResultsPatients showed exaggerated age-related decline in brain structure, but not fluid reasoning compared to controls. In the patient group, no moderation of age-related brain structural change by CR was evident. However, age-related cognitive change was moderated by CR, such that only patients with low CR showed evidence of exaggerated fluid reasoning decline that paralleled the exaggerated age-related deterioration of underpinning brain structures seen in all patients.ConclusionsIn schizophrenia-spectrum illness, CR may negate ageing effects on fluid reasoning by buffering against pathologically exaggerated structural brain deterioration through some form of compensation. CR may represent an important modifier that could explain inconsistencies in brain structure - cognition outcomes in the extant literature.",
keywords = "Cognitive subgroups, compensation, crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence, intellectual enrichment, neuroprotection, premorbid IQ, verbal intelligence",
author = "{Van Rheenen}, {Tamsyn E.} and Vanessa Cropley and Birgitte Fagerlund and Cassandra Wannan and Jason Bruggemann and Lenroot, {Rhoshel K.} and Suresh Sundram and Weickert, {Cynthia Shannon} and Weickert, {Thomas W.} and Andrew Zalesky and Bousman, {Chad A.} and Christos Pantelis",
year = "2019",
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doi = "10.1017/S0033291719001417",
language = "English",
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journal = "Psychological Medicine",
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Van Rheenen, TE, Cropley, V, Fagerlund, B, Wannan, C, Bruggemann, J, Lenroot, RK, Sundram, S, Weickert, CS, Weickert, TW, Zalesky, A, Bousman, CA & Pantelis, C 2019, 'Cognitive reserve attenuates age-related cognitive decline in the context of putatively accelerated brain ageing in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders' Psychological Medicine, pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719001417

Cognitive reserve attenuates age-related cognitive decline in the context of putatively accelerated brain ageing in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. / Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E.; Cropley, Vanessa; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Wannan, Cassandra; Bruggemann, Jason; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Sundram, Suresh; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Weickert, Thomas W.; Zalesky, Andrew; Bousman, Chad A.; Pantelis, Christos.

In: Psychological Medicine, 09.07.2019, p. 1-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cognitive reserve attenuates age-related cognitive decline in the context of putatively accelerated brain ageing in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

AU - Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E.

AU - Cropley, Vanessa

AU - Fagerlund, Birgitte

AU - Wannan, Cassandra

AU - Bruggemann, Jason

AU - Lenroot, Rhoshel K.

AU - Sundram, Suresh

AU - Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

AU - Weickert, Thomas W.

AU - Zalesky, Andrew

AU - Bousman, Chad A.

AU - Pantelis, Christos

PY - 2019/7/9

Y1 - 2019/7/9

N2 - BackgroundIn schizophrenia, relative stability in the magnitude of cognitive deficits across age and illness duration is inconsistent with the evidence of accelerated deterioration in brain regions known to support these functions. These discrepant brain-cognition outcomes may be explained by variability in cognitive reserve (CR), which in neurological disorders has been shown to buffer against brain pathology and minimize its impact on cognitive or clinical indicators of illness.MethodsAge-related change in fluid reasoning, working memory and frontal brain volume, area and thickness were mapped using regression analysis in 214 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 168 healthy controls. In patients, these changes were modelled as a function of CR.ResultsPatients showed exaggerated age-related decline in brain structure, but not fluid reasoning compared to controls. In the patient group, no moderation of age-related brain structural change by CR was evident. However, age-related cognitive change was moderated by CR, such that only patients with low CR showed evidence of exaggerated fluid reasoning decline that paralleled the exaggerated age-related deterioration of underpinning brain structures seen in all patients.ConclusionsIn schizophrenia-spectrum illness, CR may negate ageing effects on fluid reasoning by buffering against pathologically exaggerated structural brain deterioration through some form of compensation. CR may represent an important modifier that could explain inconsistencies in brain structure - cognition outcomes in the extant literature.

AB - BackgroundIn schizophrenia, relative stability in the magnitude of cognitive deficits across age and illness duration is inconsistent with the evidence of accelerated deterioration in brain regions known to support these functions. These discrepant brain-cognition outcomes may be explained by variability in cognitive reserve (CR), which in neurological disorders has been shown to buffer against brain pathology and minimize its impact on cognitive or clinical indicators of illness.MethodsAge-related change in fluid reasoning, working memory and frontal brain volume, area and thickness were mapped using regression analysis in 214 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 168 healthy controls. In patients, these changes were modelled as a function of CR.ResultsPatients showed exaggerated age-related decline in brain structure, but not fluid reasoning compared to controls. In the patient group, no moderation of age-related brain structural change by CR was evident. However, age-related cognitive change was moderated by CR, such that only patients with low CR showed evidence of exaggerated fluid reasoning decline that paralleled the exaggerated age-related deterioration of underpinning brain structures seen in all patients.ConclusionsIn schizophrenia-spectrum illness, CR may negate ageing effects on fluid reasoning by buffering against pathologically exaggerated structural brain deterioration through some form of compensation. CR may represent an important modifier that could explain inconsistencies in brain structure - cognition outcomes in the extant literature.

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KW - compensation

KW - crystallized intelligence

KW - fluid intelligence

KW - intellectual enrichment

KW - neuroprotection

KW - premorbid IQ

KW - verbal intelligence

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