Cognitive Decline and Risk of Dementia in Individuals With Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Swarna Vishwanath, Vazhma Qaderi, Claire J. Steves, Christopher M. Reid, Ingrid Hopper, Joanne Ryan

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13 Citations (Scopus)


Background: We sought to determine the association between heart failure (HF) and cognitive change and dementia. Methods and Results: Systematic search of three electronic databases was performed and 29 eligible studies involving approximately 3 million participants were identified. Twelve studies examined dementia and 20 cognitive change, but only a subset of studies could be included in the meta-analysis. These findings indicated that HF was not significantly associated with dementia (n = 8, hazard ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.50), but increased the risk of cognitive impairment (n = 3, hazard ratio 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.14–2.86). Additionally, HF was associated with poorer mean cognitive performance in global cognition (Hedges’ g –0.73, 95% confidence interval –1.12 to –0.35), memory (Hedges’ g –0.57, 95% confidence interval –0.72 to –0.42), executive function (Hedges’ g –0.58, 95% confidence interval –0.72 to –0.43), attention/speed (Hedges’ g –0.50, 95% confidence interval –0.63 to –0.37) and language (Hedges’ g –0.61, 95% confidence interval –1.05 to –0.17). Conclusions: Patients with HF perform worse on all cognitive tests and have an increased risk of cognitive impairment. These findings highlight the need for clinicians to consider cognition as part of routine care for patients with HF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1337-1348
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Cardiac Failure
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • cognition
  • cognitive decline
  • cognitive impairment
  • dementia
  • Heart failure

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