Neurocognitive compromise, neuropsychiatric symptoms and psychopathology are all evident in the acute stages of autoimmune encephalitides. These factors considerably affect functional independence after discharge. Drawing on psychometric assessments and qualitative descriptions, this review explores the nature, extent and diagnosis of cognitive disorder in autoimmune encephalitides. Potential pathophysiological and neuroanatomical architecture related to neurocognitive compromise in the acute and chronic stages of this illness is examined. In regard to outcomes, the review highlights clinicodemographic factors currently known to be associated with poorer cognitive outcome. Finally, the review delves into neuropsychiatric symptomology and psychological concerns that should be considered at diagnosis and during follow up of these patients.