Coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink intake and pancreatic cancer risk: A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies

Jeanine M. Genkinger, Ruifeng Li, Donna Spiegelman, Kristin E. Anderson, Demetrius Albanes, Leif Bergkvist, Leslie Bernstein, Amanda Black, Piet A. Van Den Brandt, Dallas R. English, Jo L. Freudenheim, Charles S Fuchs, Graham G. Giles, Edward Giovannucci, R. Alexandra Goldbohm, Pamela L. Horn-Ross, Eric J. Jacobs, Anita Koushik, Satu Männisö, James R. MarshallAnthony B. Miller, Alpa V. Patel, Kim Robien, Thomas E. Rohan, Catherine Schairer, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, Alicja Wolk, Regina G Ziegler, Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

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75 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anticarcinogenic properties, whereas tea may contain anticarcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, whereas findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous. Methods: In this pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2,185 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 853,894 individuals during follow-up. Multivariate (MV) study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.81-1.48 comparing ≥900 to <0 g/d; 237g ≈ 8oz), tea (MVRR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78-1.16 comparing ≥400 to 0 g/d; 237g ≈ 8oz), or SSB (MVRR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.98-1.46 comparing ≥250 to 0 g/d; 355g ≈ 12oz; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity > 0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status, and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12). Conclusion and Impact: Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of coffee or tea during adulthood and pancreatic cancer risk. Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-318
Number of pages14
JournalCancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes

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