‘Code-95’ rapid response calls for patients under airborne precautions in the COVID-19-era: a cross-sectional survey of healthcare worker perceptions

Ashwin Subramaniam, Alexandr Zuberav, Robert Wengritzky, Christopher Bowden, Ravindranath Tiruvoipati, Wei Chun Wang, Vikas Wadhwa

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: To allow better allocation of staff and resources, rapid response teams attending to acutely deteriorating or aggressive patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection were pre-warned with the announcement of 'Code-95' with calls. Aim: To assess healthcare worker (HCW) perspectives on pre-warning rapid response calls (RRC) with ‘Code-95’ in announcements when attending to deteriorating or aggressive patients with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 infection. Methods: Design: prospective cross-sectional single-centre survey of HCW over a 3-week period. Setting: tertiary public hospital. Participants: HCW caring for deteriorating or aggressive patients. Main outcome measures: the primary outcome was to assess HCW perspectives in attending Code-95 calls. Secondary outcomes were to identify any differences related to craft group, age, experience or presence of comorbidities. Results: A total of 297 responses was analysed; 86.7% of HCW (n = 257) attending Code-95 calls reported anxiety. Medical staff reported greater anxiety in comparison to nursing staff (93.8% vs 78.5%; P = 0.002). Efferent team reported higher anxiety in contrast to afferent team (92.6% vs 58.8%; P = 0.021). There was no significant difference in perceived anxiety based on age (≤40 vs >40 years of age), years of experience (≤5 vs >5 years), comorbidities or mental illness; 54% reported concerns about adequacy of infection-control policies and personal protective equipment; 45% were worried about inadequate training for responding to Code-95 calls. Conclusions: Most surveyed HCW supported Code-95 announcements pre-warning them of potential COVID-19 exposure when attending a RRC. However, the majority of HCW reported anxiety when attending these calls. Medical and efferent team HCW perceived greater anxiety compared to nursing and afferent team HCW. The Code-95 system to pre-warn rapid response teams may be a useful addition to protecting HCW from infectious diseases, although broader implementation will require greater resourcing, training and support.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)494-505
Number of pages12
JournalInternal Medicine Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Code-95 call
  • COVID-19
  • healthcare worker
  • medical emergency team
  • personal protective equipment
  • rapid response system

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