Clinically Relevant Outcome Measures for Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Studies

Denes V. Agoston, Jesse McCullough, Roxanne Aniceto, Alaa Kamnaksh, David K. Wright, Sandy R. Shultz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Otherpeer-review


There is an unquestionably large translational gap between experimental and clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies. The “lost in translation” factor is reflected in the zero success rates of clinical trials for TBI forcing pharmaceuticals to eliminate or drastically reduce their R&D budgets for developing pharmacotherapies for TBI. Of the many factors contributing to the current translational block is the difference in outcome measures used in experimental versus clinical TBI studies, essentially forcing scientists to compare “apples to oranges.” Here, we describe selected clinically relevant outcome measures scientists in experimental TBI can and should employ. We specifically focus on neurobehavioral, imaging and biochemical outcome measures which all have clinical equivalents. Our goal is to provide scientists with detailed descriptions of methodologies hoping that increasing numbers of experimental TBI studies will use them resulting in narrowing the translational gap between experimental and clinical TBI studies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAnimal Models of Neurotrauma
EditorsMårten Risling, Johan Davidsson
Place of PublicationNew York NY USA
PublisherHumana Press
Number of pages32
ISBN (Electronic)9781493997114
ISBN (Print)9781493997091
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Publication series

ISSN (Print)0893-2336
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6045


  • Biological fluids
  • Neurobehavior
  • Neuroimaging
  • Protein biomarkers
  • Reverse phase protein microarray
  • Traumatic brain injury

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