The haemopoietic growth factors are a diverse group of hormones with effects on different haemopoietic cell lineages and at various points in their developmental differentiation. The biology of many of these factors is now well understood. They have entered clinical trials and have demonstrated benefits in particular clinical situations. The thrust of current phase II and III clinical investigations now is to use these factors, alone or in combinations, to modify various disease states and to ameliorate many of the side-effects of other therapeutic agents, particularly cytotoxic anticancer agents. Many other disease states also lend themselves to therapy with these growth factors. Other haemopoietic growth factors have not been as extensively studied in humans but hold great promise. In this chapter, the current status of the haemopoietic growth factors presently under clinical trial has been reviewed. In addition, several factors which have been recently described but which have not yet entered clinical trials have been discussed.