The availability of sensitive, accurate and specific analytical methods for the measurement of polymyxins in biological fluids has enabled an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of these important antibiotics in healthy humans and patients. Colistin is administered as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) and has especially complex pharmacokinetics. CMS undergoes conversion in vivo to the active entity colistin, but the rate of conversion varies from brand to brand and possibly from batch to batch. The extent of conversion is generally quite low and depends on the relative magnitudes of the conversion clearance and other clearance pathways for CMS of which renal excretion is a major component. Formed colistin in the systemic circulation undergoes very extensive tubular reabsorption; the same mechanism operates for polymyxin B which is administered in its active form. The extensive renal tubular reabsorption undoubtedly contributes to the propensity for the polymyxins to cause nephrotoxicity. While there are some aspects of pharmacokinetic behaviour that are similar between the two clinically used polymyxins, there are also substantial differences. In this chapter, the pharmacokinetics of colistin, administered as CMS, and polymyxin B are reviewed, and the therapeutic implications are discussed.