Clinical Impact of the Introduction of Pediatric Intussusception Air Enema Reduction Technology in a Low- to Middle-Income Country Using Low-Cost Simulation-Based Medical Education

Ramesh Mark Nataraja, Mar Oo Yin Mar Oo, KK Kyaw, Nathalie R. Webb, Damir Ljuhar, Maurizio Pacilli, Nyo Nyo Win, Chris Kimber, Aye Aye

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Pediatric intussusception is a common cause of bowel obstruction in infants. Air enema (AE) reduction is routine first-line management in many countries; however, there is a high rate of operative intervention in low- and middle-income countries. The aims of the study were to use simulation-based medical education with an intussusception simulator to introduce AE reduction to Myanmar and to assess its effect on provider behaviors and the resulting clinical care. Methods: Clinical evaluation was conducted by comparing clinical outcomes data for children with intussusception 12 months before implementation with that from 12 months subsequent to implementation. These included the following: AE success rates, recurrence rates, length of stay, intestinal resection, and operative intervention rates. An educational workshop was developed that used a low-cost mannequin to facilitate practice at the reduction of intussusception using AE. Curriculum evaluation was performed through 5-point rating scale self-assessment in several domains. Data analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U test, Student t test, or Wilcoxon signed-ranks test as appropriate; a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: After implementation, there was a significant reduction in the overall operative intervention rates [82.5% (85/103) vs. 58.7% (44/75), P = 0.006]. Intestinal resection rates increased [15.3% (13/85) vs. 35.9% (14/39), P = 0.02]. The success rate with attempted AE reduction was 94.4% (34/36), with a recurrence rate of 5.6% (2/36). The simulation-based medical education workshop was completed by 25 local participants. There was a significant difference in the confidence of performing (1.9 vs. 3.6, P ≤ 0.0001) or assisting (2.8 vs. 3.7, P = 0.018) an AE reduction before and after the workshop. Conclusions: Simulation-based educational techniques can be successfully applied in a low- and middle-income country to facilitate the safe introduction of new equipment and techniques with significant beneficial impact on provider behaviors and the resulting clinical care.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-13
Number of pages7
JournalSimulation in Healthcare
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020


  • Air enema
  • Global health
  • global surgery
  • Intussusception management,
  • Intussusception reduction
  • Surgical simulation

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