Background Despite associations of sex hormones in women with increased cardiometabolic risk and mortality, the clinical correlates of altered sex hormone concentrations in women are less clearly understood. We investigated a broad range of clinical correlates of sex hormones in women from a large population-based sample. Methods Data from 2560 women from two cohorts of the Study of Health in Pomerania were used. Stepwise multivariable regression models were implemented to investigate a broad range of behavioral, socio-demographic, and cardiometabolic clinical correlates related to total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (fT), androstenedione (ASD), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Results Waist circumference and BMI (β-coefficient: - 0.03; 95% CI: - 0.04; 0.03) were inversely related to SHBG, and BMI was positively related to TT (β-coefficient: 0.005; 95% CI: 0.001; 0.009), fT, E1, and E2. Smoking was positively related to TT (β-coefficient: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01; 0.06), ASD, and fT. Systolic blood pressure (TT: β-coefficient: 0.002; 95% CI: 0.001; 0.003), hypertension (TT: β-coefficient: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.003; 0.11), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (TT: β-coefficient: 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01; 0.05), and total cholesterol (TT: β-coefficient: - 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01; 0.05) were positively related to TT and ASD. Finally, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were positively related to fT, but inversely related to SHBG. Conclusions Our population-based study, with sex hormone concentrations measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealed associations between clinical correlates including waist circumference, smoking, cohabitation, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and MetS with sex hormones. Thus, sex hormones and SHBG may play a role in the cardiovascular risk profile of women.
- Clinical correlates
- Sex hormones