Citizen co-production of cyber security: Self-help, vigilantes, and cybercrime

Lennon Y.C. Chang, Lena Y. Zhong, Peter N. Grabosky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Given the limited resources and capabilities of states tomaintain cyber security, a variety of co-production efforts have beenmade by individuals or by collectives, of varying degrees of organization and coordination. This article identifies different forms of citizen coproduction of cyber security and notes the risk of unintended consequences. Safeguards and principles are proposed in order to facilitate constructive citizen/netizen co-production of cyber security. Although co-production of security can contribute to social control, only those activities within the bounds of the law should be encouraged. Activities of private citizens/netizens that test the limits of legality should be closely circumscribed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-114
Number of pages14
JournalRegulation & Governance
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • co-production of security
  • cybersecurity
  • cybercrime
  • internet vigilantism
  • self-help

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