OBJECTIVES: To study hemodynamic changes within continuous renal replacement therapy circuits and evaluate their relationship with continuous renal replacement therapy longevity. DESIGN: Analysis of downloaded variables recorded by continuous renal replacement therapy machines during multiple episodes of clinical care. SETTING: Tertiary ICU in Melbourne, Australia. PATIENTS: Cohort of 149 ICU patients: 428 episodes of continuous renal replacement therapy.None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Indices of continuous renal replacement therapy function representing 554,991 minutes were assessed including blood flow, access pressure, effluent pressure, prefilter pressure, and return pressure. We defined three patterns of artificial kidney failure: early (≤ 12 hr), intermediate (> 12-24 hr), and late (> 24 hr) in 35%, 31%, and 34% of circuits, respectively. Mean access pressure in late artificial kidney failure was 7.5 mm Hg (7.1-7.9 mm Hg) less negative than early failing circuits and pressures demonstrated lower variability in such late failing circuits. Access dysfunction, defined as access pressure less than or equal to -200 mm Hg occurred in the first 4 hours in 118 circuits (27%) which had a shorter (median [interquartile range]) life at 12.9 hr [5.5-21.3 hr]) hours than access dysfunction-free circuits (18.8 hr [10.1-33.4 hr]; p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis found the first occurrence of access dysfunction (as a time-varying covariate) was independently associated with increased hazard of subsequent failure (hazard ratio, 1.75; 1.36-2.26). Classification and regression tree analysis of summary pressure indices in the first 2 hours confirmed minimum access pressure to be a significant predictor, as well as indices of transmembrane pressure and return pressure. A pressure-based predictor correctly identified early and late failing circuits (86.2% and 93.6% specificity, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Access dysfunction is a predictor of continuous renal replacement therapy circuit failure. Future monitoring of continuous renal replacement therapy hemodynamics may facilitate remedial actions to improve circuit function.