Objectives: We investigated choroid plexus (CP) volume in patients presenting with optic neuritis (ON) as a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), compared to a cohort with established relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and healthy controls (HCs). Methods: Three-dimensional (3D) T1, T2-FLAIR and diffusion-weighted sequences were acquired from 44 ON CIS patients at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the onset of ON. Fifty RRMS patients and 50 HCs were also included for comparison. Results: CP volumes was larger in both ON CIS and RRMS groups compared to HCs, but not significantly different between ON CIS and RRMS patients (analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for multiple comparisons). Twenty-three ON CIS patients who converted to clinically definite MS (MS) demonstrated CP volume similar to RRMS patients, but significantly larger compared to HCs. In this sub-group, CP volume was not associated with the severity of optic nerve inflammation or long-term axonal loss, not with brain lesion load. A transient increase of CP volume was observed following an occurrence of new MS lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Interpretation: Enlarged CP can be observed very early in a disease. It transiently reacts to acute inflammation, but not associated with the degree of tissue destruction.
- Choroid plexus
- clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)
- multiple sclerosis
- optic neuritis