Cholesterol is a molecule with many tasks in nature but also a long history in science. This feature article highlights the contribution of this small compound to bionanotechnology. We discuss relevant chemical aspects in this context followed by an overview of its self-assembly capabilities both as a free molecule and when conjugated to a polymer. Further, cholesterol in the context of liposomes is reviewed and its impact ranging from biosensing to drug delivery is outlined. Cholesterol is and will be an indispensable player in bionanotechnology, contributing to the progress of this potent field of research.