Albeit children of prisoners can be severely affected by parental incarceration, criminological research has only recently started taking an interest in their experiences. This chapter focusses on children who experience parental imprisonment, with a specific focus on those in Australia and New Zealand. It summarises academic findings on the effects of parental incarceration and the wider impact of the adult criminal justice system on children. It draws from the authors’ own research in Australia to describe current policy responses to address these impacts, both legislative and practice-based. Comparisons are made with other jurisdictions to highlight innovative and child-sensitive responses in the courts, at sentencing, and at the point of imprisonment.