Chemical modification of starch by reactive extrusion

Graeme Moad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

188 Citations (Scopus)


Processes for chemical transformation of starch by extrusion processing (reactive extrusion, REX) are reviewed with a focus on non-food applications. The scope, advantages, limitations and specificity of various REX processes for are examined in this context. The processes covered include: the grafting of monomers from starch as single units, such as ring-opening of epoxides, esterification (with lactones, anhydrides, acids, halides or vinyl esters) phosphorylation and silylation; graft polymerization from starch by radical-induced grafting or the ring-opening polymerization of lactones; reactive compatibilization with polyesters and polyolefins by grafting to or from starch; crosslinking of starch with epichlorohydrin or by phosphorylation; and the degradation of starch thermally or catalyzed by acid or enzymes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-237
Number of pages20
JournalProgress in Polymer Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Anhydride
  • Epoxide
  • Lactone
  • Radical
  • Reactive compatibilization
  • Reactive extrusion

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