The specificity and function of two T-cell clones derived from A/Memphis/1/71 (H3) influenza virus (Mem 71)-immune BALB/c spleen cells have been compared. One clone, X-31 clone 1, was subtype specific, proliferating in response to influenza strains of the H3 subtype only. The other, Jap clone 3, cross-reacted in proliferation assays with heterologous subtypes of influenza A, but not type B. Both clones recognized the HA1 chain of the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule and their proliferation in response to detergent-disrupted virus could be specifically inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to the HA. The T-cell clones were of the L3T4+ phenotype. Both recognized antigen in association with I-Ed, as indicated by studies with H-2 recombinant strains of mice and by blocking with monoclonal anti-I-E antibody. In vivo, both clones elicited a delayedtype hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction when inoculated into mouse footpads together with virus, X-31 clone 1 again displaying subtype specificity and Jap clone 3 being cross-reactive. The clones were also able to provide factor-mediated help in vitro to virus-primed B cells in an anti-HA antibody response. The cross-reactive T-cell clone provided help not only for B cells primed with influenza A subtype H3 and responding to H3 virus in culture, but also for H2 virus-primed B cells making anti-H2 antibody.