The nucleoprotein (NP) gene from influenza virus A/Shearwater/Australia/72 has been expressed intracellularly in both E. coli and insect cells. E. coli-derived NP was identified by Western blot analysis as a 56 kDa protein which co-migrates with virion-derived NP. This protein was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography and a nitrocellulose binding assay showed that NP formed complexes with positive- and negative-sense influenza neuraminidase RNA transcribed in vitro. ELISA and Western blot analysis revealed that recombinant NP of 56 kDa was produced in high yields in insect cells using a baculovirus vector. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that NP was localised to the nucleus of infected insect cells.