We analyzed the deaths in an outpatient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care clinic at University Hospitals in Cleveland from January 1995 through December 1999. The number of annual deaths decreased progressively, from 112 in 1995 to 32 in 1999. The median final CD4+ cell count before death increased progressively from 10 cells/μL in 1995 to 90 cells/μL in 1999 (P <.01); 20%-25% of patients who died from 1997 through 1999 had plasma HIV RNA levels below detection limits. From 1995 through 1998, deaths due to infection, to end-stage acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and to malignancies decreased, whereas the proportion of deaths due to end-organ failures and of uncertain relationship to HIV infection increased. The spectrum of mortality in HIV disease has changed recently; although opportunistic infections cause death less frequently, deaths are occurring in people who have control of HIV replication and with some preservation of immune function. These observations underscore the need to monitor the etiologies of HIV-associated mortality and to better our understanding of the relationships among immune defenses, treatment-related toxicities, and end-organ failure in patients with HIV disease.