Changing management and industrial relations in Europe: Converging towards an enterprise focus?

Oliver Clarke, Greg J. Bamber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This article notes some patterns of diversity as well as some moves towards harmonization of industrial relations arrangements and that there are certain parallel trends in European countries. It examines developments affecting unions, employers and the state as well as the changing approaches to collective bargaining. It goes on to discuss the increasing impact of the European Union (formerly European Community) and it concludes that, rather than finding much convergence, there are continuing and significant differences between European countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)633-651
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Human Resource Management
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 1994

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