Changes in plasma lipidome following initiation of antiretroviral therapy

Janine M. Trevillyan, Gerard Wong, Rebekah Puls, Kathy Petoumenos, Sean Emery, Natalie A. Mellett, Piyushkumar A. Mundra, Peter J. Meikle, Jennifer F. Hoy, for the ALTAIR Study Group

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Introduction HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease and important changes in lipid metabolism. Advances in mass-spectrometry technology allow for the detailed assessment of individual lipid species which may illuminate the mechanisms underlying increased cardiovascular risk. We describe the change in plasma lipidome with initiation of antiretroviral therapy and compare these by regimen. Methods Plasma lipid profiling (by electrospray isonisation-tandem mass spectrometry) was performed on ARV-naive HIV positive participants randomised to one of three regimens; tenofovir/emtricitabine with efavirenz, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (atazanavir/r) or zidovudine/ abacavir. Participants (n = 115) who remained on their randomised regimen with complete samples available at baseline, week 12 and 48 were included. 306 lipid species from 22 lipid classes were analysed. Results Initiation of ART led to significant changes in lipidome which were partly dependent on the randomised regimen received. This led to significant differences in 72 lipid species and 7 classes (cholesterol ester, free cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, GM3 ganglioside, trihexosylceramide, monohexosylceramide, and ceramides) by arm at week 48. Consistently higher lipid concentrations were seen with efavirenz compared with atazanavir/r or zidovudine/abacavir. Twelve of the lipid species and two lipid classes (cholesterol esters and ceramides) that were significantly increased in the efavirenz arm compared with the atazanavir/ r or zidovudine/abacavir arms have previously been associated with future cardiovascular events in HIV positive patients. Change in HIV viral load was predictive of change in 3 lipid species. Conclusions Initiation of ART lead to significant changes in the plasma lipidome that were greatest in those receiving efavirenz.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages16
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018

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