Despite 20 years of research, a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has not been developed. A vaccine to prevent HCV will need to induce broadly reactive immunity able to prevent infection by the 7 genetically and antigenically distinct genotypes circulating world-wide. HCV encodes two surface exposed glycoproteins, E1 and E2 that function as a heterodimer to mediate viral entry. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to both E1 and E2 have been described with the major NAb target being E2. The function of E2 is to attach virions to host cells via cell surface receptors that include, but is not limited to, the tetraspanin CD81 and scavenger receptor class B type 1. However, E2 has developed a number of immune evasion strategies to limit the effectiveness of the NAb response and possibly limit the ability of the immune system to generate potent NAbs in natural infection. Hypervariable regions that shield the underlying core domain, subdominant neutralization epitopes and glycan shielding combine to make E2 a difficult target for the immune system. This review summarizes recent information on the role of NAbs to prevent HCV infection, the targets of the NAb response and structural information on glycoprotein E2 in complex with neutralizing antibodies. This new information should provide a framework for the rational design of new vaccine candidates that elicit highly potent broadly reactive NAbs to prevent HCV infection.