Challenges and opportunities of load frequency control in conventional, modern and future smart power systems: a comprehensive review

Hassan Haes Alhelou, Mohamad Esmail Hamedani-Golshan, Reza Zamani, Ehsan Heydarian-Forushani, Pierluigi Siano

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

226 Citations (Scopus)


Power systems are the most complex systems that have been created by men in history. To operate such systems in a stable mode, several control loops are needed. Voltage frequency plays a vital role in power systems which need to be properly controlled. To this end, primary and secondary frequency control loops are used to control the frequency of the voltage in power systems. Secondary frequency control, which is called Load Frequency Control (LFC), is responsible for maintaining the frequency in a desirable level after a disturbance. Likewise, the power exchanges between different control areas are controlled by LFC approaches. In recent decades, many control approaches have been suggested for LFC in power systems. This paper presents a comprehensive literature survey on the topic of LFC. In this survey, the used LFC models for diverse configurations of power systems are firstly investigated and classified for both conventional and future smart power systems. Furthermore, the proposed control strategies for LFC are studied and categorized into different control groups. The paper concludes with highlighting the research gaps and presenting some new research directions in the field of LFC.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberen11102497
Number of pages35
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 20 Sept 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Automatic generation control (AGC)
  • Frequency deviation
  • Interconnected power systems
  • Load frequency control (LFC)
  • Secondary frequency control
  • Smart grids
  • Supplementary frequency control
  • Tie-lines power deviation

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