Cerebral vascular regulation and brain injury in preterm infants

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Cerebrovascular lesions, mainly germinal matrix hemorrhage and ischemic injury to the periventricular white matter, are major causes of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. Cerebrovascular lesions and neuromorbidity increase with decreasing gestational age, with the white matter predominantly affected. Developmental immaturity in the cerebral circulation, including ongoing angiogenesis and vasoregulatory immaturity, plays a major role in the severity and pattern of preterm brain injury. Prevention of this injury requires insight into pathogenesis. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is low in the preterm white matter, which also has blunted vasoreactivity compared with other brain regions. Vasoreactivity in the preterm brain to cerebral perfusion pressure, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and neuronal metabolism is also immature. This could be related to immaturity of both the vasculature and vasoactive signaling. Other pathologies arising from preterm birth and the neonatal intensive care environment itself may contribute to impaired vasoreactivity and ineffective CBF regulation, resulting in the marked variations in cerebral hemodynamics reported both within and between infants depending on their clinical condition. Many gaps exist in our understanding of how neonatal treatment procedures and medications have an impact on cerebral hemodynamics and preterm brain injury. Future research directions for neuroprotective strategies include establishing cotside, real-time clinical reference values for cerebral hemodynamics and vasoregulatory capacity and to demonstrate that these thresholds improve long-term outcomes for the preterm infant. In addition, stimulation of vascular development and repair with growth factor and cell-based therapies also hold promise.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)R773 - R786
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume306
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Cite this

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title = "Cerebral vascular regulation and brain injury in preterm infants",
abstract = "Cerebrovascular lesions, mainly germinal matrix hemorrhage and ischemic injury to the periventricular white matter, are major causes of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. Cerebrovascular lesions and neuromorbidity increase with decreasing gestational age, with the white matter predominantly affected. Developmental immaturity in the cerebral circulation, including ongoing angiogenesis and vasoregulatory immaturity, plays a major role in the severity and pattern of preterm brain injury. Prevention of this injury requires insight into pathogenesis. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is low in the preterm white matter, which also has blunted vasoreactivity compared with other brain regions. Vasoreactivity in the preterm brain to cerebral perfusion pressure, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and neuronal metabolism is also immature. This could be related to immaturity of both the vasculature and vasoactive signaling. Other pathologies arising from preterm birth and the neonatal intensive care environment itself may contribute to impaired vasoreactivity and ineffective CBF regulation, resulting in the marked variations in cerebral hemodynamics reported both within and between infants depending on their clinical condition. Many gaps exist in our understanding of how neonatal treatment procedures and medications have an impact on cerebral hemodynamics and preterm brain injury. Future research directions for neuroprotective strategies include establishing cotside, real-time clinical reference values for cerebral hemodynamics and vasoregulatory capacity and to demonstrate that these thresholds improve long-term outcomes for the preterm infant. In addition, stimulation of vascular development and repair with growth factor and cell-based therapies also hold promise.",
author = "Nadine Brew and Walker, {David William} and Wong, {Flora Yuen-Wait}",
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language = "English",
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Cerebral vascular regulation and brain injury in preterm infants. / Brew, Nadine; Walker, David William; Wong, Flora Yuen-Wait.

In: American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, Vol. 306, No. 11, 2014, p. R773 - R786.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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