Cerebral haemodynamic response to somatosensory stimulation in neonatal lambs

Shinji Nakamura, David W. Walker, Flora Y. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Key points: Cerebral haemodynamic response to neural stimulation has been extensively studied in adults, but little is known about cerebral haemodynamic response in the fetal and neonatal brain. The present study describes the cerebral haemodynamic response measured by near infrared spectroscopy to somatosensory stimulation in newborn lambs, in comparison to recent findings in fetal sheep. The cerebral haemodynamic responses in the newborn lamb brain can involve an increase in oxyhaemoglobin (oxyHb), or a decrease of oxyHb suggestive of reduced perfusion and oxygenation. Positive correlations between changes in oxyHb and mean arterial blood pressure were found in newborn but not fetal sheep, which suggests the result is unlikely to be due to immature autoregulation alone. In contrast to adult studies, hypercapnia increased the changes in cerebral blood flow and oxyHb in most of the lambs in response to somatosensory stimulation. Abstract: The neurovascular coupling response has been defined for the adult brain, but in the neonate non-invasive measurement of local cerebral perfusion using near infrared spectroscopy or blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging have yielded variable and inconsistent results, including negative responses suggesting decreased perfusion and localized tissue tissue hypoxia. Also, the impact of permissive hypercapnia > 50 mmHg) in the management of neonates on cerebrovascular responses to somatosensory input is unknown. Using near infrared spectroscopy to measure changes in cerebral oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin (ΔoxyHb, ΔdeoxyHb) in eight anaesthetized newborn lambs, we studied the cerebral haemodynamic functional response to left median nerve stimulation using stimulus trains of 1.8, 4.8 and 7.8 s. Stimulation always produced a somatosensory evoked response, and superficial cortical perfusion measured by laser Doppler flowmetry predominantly increased following median nerve stimulation. However, with 1.8 s stimulation, oxyHb responses in the contralateral hemisphere were either positive (i.e. increased oxyHb), negative, or absent; and with 4.8 and 7.8 s stimulations, both positive and negative responses were observed. Hypercapnia increased baseline oxyHb and total Hb consistent with cerebral vasodilatation, and six of seven lambs tested showed increased Δtotal Hb responses after the 7.8 s stimulation, among which four lambs also showed increased ΔoxyHb responses. In two of three lambs, the negative ΔoxyHb response became a positive pattern during hypercapnia. These results show that instead of functional hyperaemia, somatosensory stimulation can evoke negative (decreased oxyHb, total Hb) functional responses in the neonatal brain suggestive of decreased local perfusion and vasoconstriction, and that hypercapnia produces both baseline hyperperfusion and increased functional hyperaemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6007-6021
Number of pages15
JournalThe Journal of Physiology
Volume595
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017

Keywords

  • cerebral blood flow
  • functional NIRS
  • neonatal brain
  • neurovascular coupling
  • somatosensory stimulation

Cite this

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title = "Cerebral haemodynamic response to somatosensory stimulation in neonatal lambs",
abstract = "Key points: Cerebral haemodynamic response to neural stimulation has been extensively studied in adults, but little is known about cerebral haemodynamic response in the fetal and neonatal brain. The present study describes the cerebral haemodynamic response measured by near infrared spectroscopy to somatosensory stimulation in newborn lambs, in comparison to recent findings in fetal sheep. The cerebral haemodynamic responses in the newborn lamb brain can involve an increase in oxyhaemoglobin (oxyHb), or a decrease of oxyHb suggestive of reduced perfusion and oxygenation. Positive correlations between changes in oxyHb and mean arterial blood pressure were found in newborn but not fetal sheep, which suggests the result is unlikely to be due to immature autoregulation alone. In contrast to adult studies, hypercapnia increased the changes in cerebral blood flow and oxyHb in most of the lambs in response to somatosensory stimulation. Abstract: The neurovascular coupling response has been defined for the adult brain, but in the neonate non-invasive measurement of local cerebral perfusion using near infrared spectroscopy or blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging have yielded variable and inconsistent results, including negative responses suggesting decreased perfusion and localized tissue tissue hypoxia. Also, the impact of permissive hypercapnia > 50 mmHg) in the management of neonates on cerebrovascular responses to somatosensory input is unknown. Using near infrared spectroscopy to measure changes in cerebral oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin (ΔoxyHb, ΔdeoxyHb) in eight anaesthetized newborn lambs, we studied the cerebral haemodynamic functional response to left median nerve stimulation using stimulus trains of 1.8, 4.8 and 7.8 s. Stimulation always produced a somatosensory evoked response, and superficial cortical perfusion measured by laser Doppler flowmetry predominantly increased following median nerve stimulation. However, with 1.8 s stimulation, oxyHb responses in the contralateral hemisphere were either positive (i.e. increased oxyHb), negative, or absent; and with 4.8 and 7.8 s stimulations, both positive and negative responses were observed. Hypercapnia increased baseline oxyHb and total Hb consistent with cerebral vasodilatation, and six of seven lambs tested showed increased Δtotal Hb responses after the 7.8 s stimulation, among which four lambs also showed increased ΔoxyHb responses. In two of three lambs, the negative ΔoxyHb response became a positive pattern during hypercapnia. These results show that instead of functional hyperaemia, somatosensory stimulation can evoke negative (decreased oxyHb, total Hb) functional responses in the neonatal brain suggestive of decreased local perfusion and vasoconstriction, and that hypercapnia produces both baseline hyperperfusion and increased functional hyperaemia.",
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Cerebral haemodynamic response to somatosensory stimulation in neonatal lambs. / Nakamura, Shinji; Walker, David W.; Wong, Flora Y.

In: The Journal of Physiology, Vol. 595, No. 17, 01.09.2017, p. 6007-6021.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Walker, David W.

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AB - Key points: Cerebral haemodynamic response to neural stimulation has been extensively studied in adults, but little is known about cerebral haemodynamic response in the fetal and neonatal brain. The present study describes the cerebral haemodynamic response measured by near infrared spectroscopy to somatosensory stimulation in newborn lambs, in comparison to recent findings in fetal sheep. The cerebral haemodynamic responses in the newborn lamb brain can involve an increase in oxyhaemoglobin (oxyHb), or a decrease of oxyHb suggestive of reduced perfusion and oxygenation. Positive correlations between changes in oxyHb and mean arterial blood pressure were found in newborn but not fetal sheep, which suggests the result is unlikely to be due to immature autoregulation alone. In contrast to adult studies, hypercapnia increased the changes in cerebral blood flow and oxyHb in most of the lambs in response to somatosensory stimulation. Abstract: The neurovascular coupling response has been defined for the adult brain, but in the neonate non-invasive measurement of local cerebral perfusion using near infrared spectroscopy or blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging have yielded variable and inconsistent results, including negative responses suggesting decreased perfusion and localized tissue tissue hypoxia. Also, the impact of permissive hypercapnia > 50 mmHg) in the management of neonates on cerebrovascular responses to somatosensory input is unknown. Using near infrared spectroscopy to measure changes in cerebral oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin (ΔoxyHb, ΔdeoxyHb) in eight anaesthetized newborn lambs, we studied the cerebral haemodynamic functional response to left median nerve stimulation using stimulus trains of 1.8, 4.8 and 7.8 s. Stimulation always produced a somatosensory evoked response, and superficial cortical perfusion measured by laser Doppler flowmetry predominantly increased following median nerve stimulation. However, with 1.8 s stimulation, oxyHb responses in the contralateral hemisphere were either positive (i.e. increased oxyHb), negative, or absent; and with 4.8 and 7.8 s stimulations, both positive and negative responses were observed. Hypercapnia increased baseline oxyHb and total Hb consistent with cerebral vasodilatation, and six of seven lambs tested showed increased Δtotal Hb responses after the 7.8 s stimulation, among which four lambs also showed increased ΔoxyHb responses. In two of three lambs, the negative ΔoxyHb response became a positive pattern during hypercapnia. These results show that instead of functional hyperaemia, somatosensory stimulation can evoke negative (decreased oxyHb, total Hb) functional responses in the neonatal brain suggestive of decreased local perfusion and vasoconstriction, and that hypercapnia produces both baseline hyperperfusion and increased functional hyperaemia.

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