Methods: An improved mRNA differential display technique (Gene Fishing) was undertaken to analyze differentially expressed transcripts regulated during HPAI H5N1 and velogenic neurotropic NDV infections of whole brain of chickens. The identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was made possible as this technique uses annealing control primers that generate reproducible, authentic and long PCR products that are detectable on agarose gels. Results: Twenty-three genes were identified to be significantly regulated during infections with both viruses, where ten of the genes have been selected for validation using a TaqMan based real time quantitative PCR assay. Some of the identified genes demonstrated to be key factors involving the cytoskeletal system, neural signal transduction and protein folding during stress. Interestingly, Septin 5, one of the genes isolated from HPAI H5N1- infected brain tissues has been reported to participate in the pathogenic process of Parkinson s disease. Conclusions: In this limited study, the differentially expressed genes of infected brain tissues regulated by the viruses were found not to be identical, thus suggesting that their neurovirulence and neuropathogenesis may not share similar mechanisms and pathways.