We assessed interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses via enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) to a number of S. Typhi antigens in samples from humans with S. Typhi bacteremia and typhoid fever in Bangladesh. Compared with responses in healthy endemic zone controls, there were significantly increased IFN-gamma responses at the time of clinical presentation (acute phase) and at convalescence 14-28 days later. The majority (80-90 ) of IFN-gamma expressing T cells were CD4+. We observed a significant increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) positive CD4 + T cells at convalescent versus acute stage of infection using an intracellular cytokine staining assay. We also found that stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced significantly increased levels of a number of cytokines at the convalescent versus acute phase of infection, including IFN-gamma, MIP-1beta, sCD40L, TNF-beta, IL-13, and IL-9. These results suggest that S. Typhi antigens induce a predominantly Th1 response, but that elevations in other cytokines may be modulatory.