Cause and Timing of Death and Subgroup Differential Effects of Erythropoietin in the EPO-TBI Study

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Abstract

The EPO-TBI study randomized 606 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to be treated with weekly epoetin alfa (EPO) or placebo. Six month mortality was lower in EPO treated patients in an analysis adjusting for TBI severity. Knowledge of possible differential effects by TBI injury subtype and acute neurosurgical treatment as well as timing and cause of death (COD) will facilitate the design of future interventional TBI trials. We defined COD as cerebral (brain death, cerebral death with withdrawal, or death during maximal care) and non-cerebral (death following withdrawal or during maximal care, which had a non-cerebral cause). The study included 305 patients treated with EPO and 297 treated with placebo, with COD recorded in 77 (99%) out of 78 non-survivors. Median time to death in patients dying of cerebral COD was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5-16) compared with 29 days (IQR 7-56) (p = 0.01) for non-cerebral COD. When assessing subgroups by admission CT scan injury findings, we found no significant differential effects of EPO compared with placebo. However, EPO appeared more effective in patients with an injury type not requiring a neurosurgical operation prior to intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.61, p = 0.001, p for interaction = 0.003) and in this subgroup, fewer patients died of cerebral causes in the EPO than in the placebo group (5% compared with 14%, p = 0.03). In conclusion, most TBI deaths were from cerebral causes that occurred during the first 2 weeks, and were related to withdrawal of care. EPO appeared to specifically reduce cerebral deaths in the important subgroup of patients with a diffuse type of injury not requiring a neurosurgical intervention prior to randomization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-340
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Volume35
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2018

Keywords

  • adult brain injury
  • clinical management of central nervous system injury
  • head trauma
  • human studies
  • traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Cite this

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title = "Cause and Timing of Death and Subgroup Differential Effects of Erythropoietin in the EPO-TBI Study",
abstract = "The EPO-TBI study randomized 606 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to be treated with weekly epoetin alfa (EPO) or placebo. Six month mortality was lower in EPO treated patients in an analysis adjusting for TBI severity. Knowledge of possible differential effects by TBI injury subtype and acute neurosurgical treatment as well as timing and cause of death (COD) will facilitate the design of future interventional TBI trials. We defined COD as cerebral (brain death, cerebral death with withdrawal, or death during maximal care) and non-cerebral (death following withdrawal or during maximal care, which had a non-cerebral cause). The study included 305 patients treated with EPO and 297 treated with placebo, with COD recorded in 77 (99{\%}) out of 78 non-survivors. Median time to death in patients dying of cerebral COD was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5-16) compared with 29 days (IQR 7-56) (p = 0.01) for non-cerebral COD. When assessing subgroups by admission CT scan injury findings, we found no significant differential effects of EPO compared with placebo. However, EPO appeared more effective in patients with an injury type not requiring a neurosurgical operation prior to intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.29, 95{\%} confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.61, p = 0.001, p for interaction = 0.003) and in this subgroup, fewer patients died of cerebral causes in the EPO than in the placebo group (5{\%} compared with 14{\%}, p = 0.03). In conclusion, most TBI deaths were from cerebral causes that occurred during the first 2 weeks, and were related to withdrawal of care. EPO appeared to specifically reduce cerebral deaths in the important subgroup of patients with a diffuse type of injury not requiring a neurosurgical intervention prior to randomization.",
keywords = "adult brain injury, clinical management of central nervous system injury, head trauma, human studies, traumatic brain injury (TBI)",
author = "Skrifvars, {Markus B.} and Craig French and Michael Bailey and Jeffrey Presneill and Alistair Nichol and Lorraine Little and Jacques Durantea and Olivier Huet and Samir Haddad and Yaseen Arabi and Colin McArthur and Cooper, {D. James} and Rinaldo Bellomo and {EPO-TBI Investigators and the ANZICS Clinical Trials Group}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
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doi = "10.1089/neu.2017.5135",
language = "English",
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pages = "333--340",
journal = "Journal of Neurotrauma",
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T1 - Cause and Timing of Death and Subgroup Differential Effects of Erythropoietin in the EPO-TBI Study

AU - Skrifvars, Markus B.

AU - French, Craig

AU - Bailey, Michael

AU - Presneill, Jeffrey

AU - Nichol, Alistair

AU - Little, Lorraine

AU - Durantea, Jacques

AU - Huet, Olivier

AU - Haddad, Samir

AU - Arabi, Yaseen

AU - McArthur, Colin

AU - Cooper, D. James

AU - Bellomo, Rinaldo

AU - EPO-TBI Investigators and the ANZICS Clinical Trials Group

PY - 2018/1/15

Y1 - 2018/1/15

N2 - The EPO-TBI study randomized 606 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to be treated with weekly epoetin alfa (EPO) or placebo. Six month mortality was lower in EPO treated patients in an analysis adjusting for TBI severity. Knowledge of possible differential effects by TBI injury subtype and acute neurosurgical treatment as well as timing and cause of death (COD) will facilitate the design of future interventional TBI trials. We defined COD as cerebral (brain death, cerebral death with withdrawal, or death during maximal care) and non-cerebral (death following withdrawal or during maximal care, which had a non-cerebral cause). The study included 305 patients treated with EPO and 297 treated with placebo, with COD recorded in 77 (99%) out of 78 non-survivors. Median time to death in patients dying of cerebral COD was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5-16) compared with 29 days (IQR 7-56) (p = 0.01) for non-cerebral COD. When assessing subgroups by admission CT scan injury findings, we found no significant differential effects of EPO compared with placebo. However, EPO appeared more effective in patients with an injury type not requiring a neurosurgical operation prior to intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.61, p = 0.001, p for interaction = 0.003) and in this subgroup, fewer patients died of cerebral causes in the EPO than in the placebo group (5% compared with 14%, p = 0.03). In conclusion, most TBI deaths were from cerebral causes that occurred during the first 2 weeks, and were related to withdrawal of care. EPO appeared to specifically reduce cerebral deaths in the important subgroup of patients with a diffuse type of injury not requiring a neurosurgical intervention prior to randomization.

AB - The EPO-TBI study randomized 606 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to be treated with weekly epoetin alfa (EPO) or placebo. Six month mortality was lower in EPO treated patients in an analysis adjusting for TBI severity. Knowledge of possible differential effects by TBI injury subtype and acute neurosurgical treatment as well as timing and cause of death (COD) will facilitate the design of future interventional TBI trials. We defined COD as cerebral (brain death, cerebral death with withdrawal, or death during maximal care) and non-cerebral (death following withdrawal or during maximal care, which had a non-cerebral cause). The study included 305 patients treated with EPO and 297 treated with placebo, with COD recorded in 77 (99%) out of 78 non-survivors. Median time to death in patients dying of cerebral COD was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5-16) compared with 29 days (IQR 7-56) (p = 0.01) for non-cerebral COD. When assessing subgroups by admission CT scan injury findings, we found no significant differential effects of EPO compared with placebo. However, EPO appeared more effective in patients with an injury type not requiring a neurosurgical operation prior to intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.61, p = 0.001, p for interaction = 0.003) and in this subgroup, fewer patients died of cerebral causes in the EPO than in the placebo group (5% compared with 14%, p = 0.03). In conclusion, most TBI deaths were from cerebral causes that occurred during the first 2 weeks, and were related to withdrawal of care. EPO appeared to specifically reduce cerebral deaths in the important subgroup of patients with a diffuse type of injury not requiring a neurosurgical intervention prior to randomization.

KW - adult brain injury

KW - clinical management of central nervous system injury

KW - head trauma

KW - human studies

KW - traumatic brain injury (TBI)

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U2 - 10.1089/neu.2017.5135

DO - 10.1089/neu.2017.5135

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JF - Journal of Neurotrauma

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