Background: Randomized trials demonstrated a lower risk of cardiovascular (CV) events with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high CV risk. Prior real-world data suggested similar SGLT-2i effects in T2D patients with a broader risk profile, but these studies focused on heart failure and death and were limited to the United States and Europe.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine a broad range of CV outcomes in patients initiated on SGLT-2i versus other glucose-lowering drugs (oGLDs) across 6 countries in the Asia Pacific, the Middle East, and North American regions.
Methods: New users of SGLT-2i and oGLDs were identified via claims, medical records, and national registries in South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Israel, Australia, and Canada. Propensity scores for SGLT-2i initiation were developed in each country, with 1:1 matching. Hazard ratios (HRs) for death, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), death or HHF, MI, and stroke were assessed by country and pooled using weighted meta-analysis.
Results: After propensity-matching, there were 235,064 episodes of treatment initiation in each group; ∼27% had established CV disease. Patient characteristics were well-balanced between groups. Dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, ipragliflozin, canagliflozin, tofogliflozin, and luseogliflozin accounted for 75%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, and 1% of exposure time in the SGLT-2i group, respectively. Use of SGLT-2i versus oGLDs was associated with a lower risk of death (HR: 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37 to 0.70; p < 0.001), HHF (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.82; p = 0.001), death or HHF (HR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.76; p < 0.001), MI (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.88; p < 0.001), and stroke (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.84; p < 0.001). Results were directionally consistent across both countries and patient subgroups, including those with and without CV disease.
Conclusions: In this large, international study of patients with T2D from the Asia Pacific, the Middle East, and North America, initiation of SGLT-2i was associated with a lower risk of CV events across a broad range of outcomes and patient characteristics.
- diabetes mellitus
- heart failure
- observational studies
- SGLT-2 inhibitor
- sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors