Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians

A meta-analysis and systematic review

Tao Huang, Bin Yang, Jusheng Zheng, Guipu Li, Mark L. Wahlqvist, Duo Li

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

113 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Prospective cohort studies have examined mortality and overall cancer incidence among vegetarians, but the results have been inconclusive. Aims: The objective of the present meta-analysis was to investigate cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence among vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Methods: Medline, EMBASE and Web Of Science databases were searched for cohort studies published from inception to September 2011. Studies were included if they contained the relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% CI. Participants were from the UK, Germany, California, USA, the Netherlands and Japan. Results: Seven studies with a total of 124,706 participants were included in this analysis. All-cause mortality in vegetarians was 9% lower than in nonvegetarians (RR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.66-1.16). The mortality from ischemic heart disease was significantly lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (RR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.87). We observed a 16% lower mortality from circulatory diseases (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.54-1.14) and a 12% lower mortality from cerebrovascular disease (RR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70-1.06) in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians. Vegetarians had a significantly lower cancer incidence than nonvegetarians (RR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-0.97). Conclusions: Our results suggest that vegetarians have a significantly lower ischemic heart disease mortality (29%) and overall cancer incidence (18%) than nonvegetarians.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-240
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume60
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012

Keywords

  • Cancer
  • Incidence
  • Meta-analysis
  • Mortality
  • Vegetarians

Cite this

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title = "Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: A meta-analysis and systematic review",
abstract = "Background: Prospective cohort studies have examined mortality and overall cancer incidence among vegetarians, but the results have been inconclusive. Aims: The objective of the present meta-analysis was to investigate cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence among vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Methods: Medline, EMBASE and Web Of Science databases were searched for cohort studies published from inception to September 2011. Studies were included if they contained the relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95{\%} CI. Participants were from the UK, Germany, California, USA, the Netherlands and Japan. Results: Seven studies with a total of 124,706 participants were included in this analysis. All-cause mortality in vegetarians was 9{\%} lower than in nonvegetarians (RR = 0.91; 95{\%} CI, 0.66-1.16). The mortality from ischemic heart disease was significantly lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (RR = 0.71; 95{\%} CI, 0.56-0.87). We observed a 16{\%} lower mortality from circulatory diseases (RR = 0.84; 95{\%} CI, 0.54-1.14) and a 12{\%} lower mortality from cerebrovascular disease (RR = 0.88; 95{\%} CI, 0.70-1.06) in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians. Vegetarians had a significantly lower cancer incidence than nonvegetarians (RR = 0.82; 95{\%} CI, 0.67-0.97). Conclusions: Our results suggest that vegetarians have a significantly lower ischemic heart disease mortality (29{\%}) and overall cancer incidence (18{\%}) than nonvegetarians.",
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Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians : A meta-analysis and systematic review. / Huang, Tao; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Jusheng; Li, Guipu; Wahlqvist, Mark L.; Li, Duo.

In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 60, No. 4, 06.2012, p. 233-240.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians

T2 - A meta-analysis and systematic review

AU - Huang, Tao

AU - Yang, Bin

AU - Zheng, Jusheng

AU - Li, Guipu

AU - Wahlqvist, Mark L.

AU - Li, Duo

PY - 2012/6

Y1 - 2012/6

N2 - Background: Prospective cohort studies have examined mortality and overall cancer incidence among vegetarians, but the results have been inconclusive. Aims: The objective of the present meta-analysis was to investigate cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence among vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Methods: Medline, EMBASE and Web Of Science databases were searched for cohort studies published from inception to September 2011. Studies were included if they contained the relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% CI. Participants were from the UK, Germany, California, USA, the Netherlands and Japan. Results: Seven studies with a total of 124,706 participants were included in this analysis. All-cause mortality in vegetarians was 9% lower than in nonvegetarians (RR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.66-1.16). The mortality from ischemic heart disease was significantly lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (RR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.87). We observed a 16% lower mortality from circulatory diseases (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.54-1.14) and a 12% lower mortality from cerebrovascular disease (RR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70-1.06) in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians. Vegetarians had a significantly lower cancer incidence than nonvegetarians (RR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-0.97). Conclusions: Our results suggest that vegetarians have a significantly lower ischemic heart disease mortality (29%) and overall cancer incidence (18%) than nonvegetarians.

AB - Background: Prospective cohort studies have examined mortality and overall cancer incidence among vegetarians, but the results have been inconclusive. Aims: The objective of the present meta-analysis was to investigate cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence among vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Methods: Medline, EMBASE and Web Of Science databases were searched for cohort studies published from inception to September 2011. Studies were included if they contained the relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% CI. Participants were from the UK, Germany, California, USA, the Netherlands and Japan. Results: Seven studies with a total of 124,706 participants were included in this analysis. All-cause mortality in vegetarians was 9% lower than in nonvegetarians (RR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.66-1.16). The mortality from ischemic heart disease was significantly lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (RR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.87). We observed a 16% lower mortality from circulatory diseases (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.54-1.14) and a 12% lower mortality from cerebrovascular disease (RR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70-1.06) in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians. Vegetarians had a significantly lower cancer incidence than nonvegetarians (RR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-0.97). Conclusions: Our results suggest that vegetarians have a significantly lower ischemic heart disease mortality (29%) and overall cancer incidence (18%) than nonvegetarians.

KW - Cancer

KW - Incidence

KW - Meta-analysis

KW - Mortality

KW - Vegetarians

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U2 - 10.1159/000337301

DO - 10.1159/000337301

M3 - Review Article

VL - 60

SP - 233

EP - 240

JO - Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism

JF - Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism

SN - 0250-6807

IS - 4

ER -