Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: A meta-analysis and systematic review

Tao Huang, Bin Yang, Jusheng Zheng, Guipu Li, Mark L. Wahlqvist, Duo Li

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    Abstract

    Background: Prospective cohort studies have examined mortality and overall cancer incidence among vegetarians, but the results have been inconclusive. Aims: The objective of the present meta-analysis was to investigate cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence among vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Methods: Medline, EMBASE and Web Of Science databases were searched for cohort studies published from inception to September 2011. Studies were included if they contained the relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% CI. Participants were from the UK, Germany, California, USA, the Netherlands and Japan. Results: Seven studies with a total of 124,706 participants were included in this analysis. All-cause mortality in vegetarians was 9% lower than in nonvegetarians (RR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.66-1.16). The mortality from ischemic heart disease was significantly lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (RR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.87). We observed a 16% lower mortality from circulatory diseases (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.54-1.14) and a 12% lower mortality from cerebrovascular disease (RR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70-1.06) in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians. Vegetarians had a significantly lower cancer incidence than nonvegetarians (RR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-0.97). Conclusions: Our results suggest that vegetarians have a significantly lower ischemic heart disease mortality (29%) and overall cancer incidence (18%) than nonvegetarians.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)233-240
    Number of pages8
    JournalAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism
    Volume60
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012

    Keywords

    • Cancer
    • Incidence
    • Meta-analysis
    • Mortality
    • Vegetarians

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