Cardiovascular disease as a leading cause of death: how are pharmacists getting involved?

Kevin P. McNamara, Hamzah Tareq Salih Alzubaidi, John Keith Jackson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of death globally. This article
explores the evidence surrounding community pharmacist interventions to reduce cardiovascular events and related mortality and to improve the management of CVD risk factors. We summarize a range of systematic reviews and leading randomized controlled trials and provide critical appraisal.
Major observations are that very few trials directly measure clinical outcomes, potentially owing to a range of challenges in this regard. By contrast, there is an extensive, high-quality evidence to suggest that improvements can be achieved for key CVD risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, and elevated hemoglobin A1c. The heterogeneity of interventions tested and considerable variation of the context under which implementation occurred suggest that caution is warranted in the interpretation of meta-analyses. It is highly important to generate evidence for pharmacist interventions in developing countries where a majority of the global CVD burden will be experienced in the near future. A growing capacity for clinical registry trials and data linkage might allow future research to collect clinical outcomes data more often.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalIntegrated Pharmacy Research and Practice
Publication statusPublished - 4 Feb 2019

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