Objective To review the current knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms, preclinical models, novel contributors and potential therapies of cardiorenal syndrome. Data sources The literature concerning cardiorenal syndrome in this review was collected from PubMed published in English up to January 2014. Study selection Original articles and critical reviews related to cardiorenal syndrome were selected and carefully analyzed. Results Cardiorenal syndrome is a condition characterized by kidney and heart failure where failure of one organ worsens the function of the other thus further accelerating the progressive failure of both organs. The pathophysiology of cardiorenal syndrome is not fully understood, but may be caused by a complex combination of neurohormonal system activation, endothelial dysfunction, proteinuria, oxidative stress, uremic toxins and other factors. Managing cardiorenal syndrome is still a major therapeutic challenge in clinical practice because many of the drugs used to control heart failure can worsen renal function, and vice versa. Non-dialyzable uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, causing detrimental effects on the heart and kidney as well as stimulation of inflammatory responses, may be an effective therapeutic target for cardiorenal syndrome. Conclusions Suitable disease models of cardiorenal syndrome are urgently needed to investigate the pathophysiology and effective therapeutic approaches to the condition. Non-dialyzable protein-bound uremic toxins that may have cardiac and renal effects may provide therapeutic benefit to cardiorenal syndrome patients.
|Pages (from-to)||3011 - 3018|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Chinese Medical Journal|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|