With the exponential growth in development of cities and increasing demand for construction, which is one of the factors in environmental degradation, the need for CO2 emissions control is essential. In order to balance carbon emissions along the life-cycle of concrete structures; in this paper, we have analysed the carbon emissions and assessed the carbon footprint of selected concrete structures in a tropical city. For this purpose, the carbon footprint has been evaluated using Life-Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) approach at different stages concrete structures’ life-cycle, which are production, construction, operation, and demolition stages, where the CO2 footprint of two residential buildings in Malaysia have been analysed as case studies. The findings indicated that the energy consumption, and the production phase in the life-cycle of a concrete structure are the main contributors of CO2 emission. In addition, detailed analysis of the carbon cycle in structures and their interaction with other components involved in the regional eco-system can lead to a significant reduction in CO2 emission, and thus to the improvement in reducing environmental deterioration and its consequences. Moreover, optimised design and customisation to the constituents of concrete, as well as improving citizens’ consumption agenda can significantly reduce the carbon emission of concrete structures.
- Carbon emission
- CO emission
- Concrete structures
- Life-cycle design
- Life-Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA)