Can Laminated Carbon Challenge Gold? Toward Universal, Scalable, and Low-Cost Carbon Electrodes for Perovskite Solar Cells

Gaveshana A. Sepalage, Hasitha Weerasinghe, Nitish Rai, Noel W. Duffy, Sonia R. Raga, Yvonne Hora, Mei Gao, Doojin Vak, Anthony S.R. Chesman, Udo Bach, Alexandr N. Simonov

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13 Citations (Scopus)


While perovskite solar cell (PSC) efficiencies are soaring at a laboratory scale, these are most commonly achieved with evaporated gold electrodes, which would present a significant expense in large-scale production. This can be remedied through the use of significantly cheaper carbon electrodes that, in contrast to metals, also do not migrate through the device. To this end, the present work investigates simple-to-prepare aluminum-supported carbon electrodes derived from commercially available, inexpensive materials that can be applied onto various hole-transporting materials and enable photovoltaic performances on par with those provided by gold electrodes. Successful integration of the new carbon-based electrode into flexible devices produced by a roll-to-roll printing technology by both pressing and lamination is demonstrated. However, temperature cycling durability tests reveal that the use of carbon electrodes based on commercial pastes is hindered by incompatibility of adhesive additives with the key components of the PSCs under heating. Resolving this issue, tailor-made graphite electrodes devoid of damaging additives are introduced, which improve the PSC stability under temperature cycling test protocol to the level provided by benchmark gold electrodes. The study highlights current challenges in developing laminated carbon electrodes in PSCs and proposes strategies toward the resolution thereof.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2101148
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced Materials Technologies
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • adhesion
  • charge transfer
  • lamination
  • photovoltaics
  • stability

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