The purpose of this paper is to help demystify the confusion on Business Process Reengineering (BPR). This is achieved through a review of the literature covering the period from the late 1980s to 1998. Articles published in the leading business journals and the more popular business magazines were included in the review, as well as books published on the topic. The paper first discusses the need for reengineering and then reviews the literature under the following headings: definition of BPR, BPR tools and techniques, BPR and TQM co-existence, understanding organisational processes, the reengineering challenge, and organisational redesign using BPR. The review shows that considerable confusion exists as to exactly what constitutes BPR. Authors place different emphasis on the definition of BPR and the many outcomes possible with BPR. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research relating to BPR.