Burden and trend of diet-related non-communicable diseases in Australia and comparison with 34 OECD countries, 1990–2015

findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

Yohannes Adama Melaku, Andre Renzaho, Tiffany K. Gill, Anne W. Taylor, Eleonora Dal Grande, Barbora de Courten, Estifanos Baye, David Gonzalez-Chica, Elina Hyppӧnen, Zumin Shi, Malcolm Riley, Robert Adams, Yohannes Kinfu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Diet is a major determining factor for many non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). However, evidence on diet-related NCD burden remains limited. We assessed the trends in diet-related NCDs in Australia from 1990 to 2015 and compared the results with other countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Methods: We used data and methods from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study to estimate the NCD mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to 14 dietary risk factors in Australia and 34 OECD nations. Countries were further ranked from the lowest (first) to highest (35th) burden using an age-standardized population attributable fraction (PAF). Results: In 2015, the estimated number of deaths attributable to dietary risks was 29,414 deaths [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 24,697 − 34,058 or 19.7% of NCD deaths] and 443,385 DALYs (95% UI 377,680–511,388 or 9.5% of NCD DALYs) in Australia. Young (25–49 years) and middle-age (50–69 years) male adults had a higher PAF of diet-related NCD deaths and DALYs than their female counterparts. Diets low in fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds and whole grains, but high in sodium, were the major contributors to both NCD deaths and DALYs. Overall, 42.3% of cardiovascular deaths were attributable to dietary risk factors. The age-standardized PAF of diet-related NCD mortality and DALYs decreased over the study period by 28.2% (from 27.0% in 1990 to 19.4% in 2015) and 41.0% (from 14.3% in 1990 to 8.4% in 2015), respectively. In 2015, Australia ranked 12th of 35 examined countries in diet-related mortality. A small improvement of rank was recorded compared to the previous 25 years. Conclusions: Despite a reduction in diet-related NCD burden over 25 years, dietary risks are still the major contributors to a high burden of NCDs in Australia. Interventions targeting NCDs should focus on dietary behaviours of individuals and population groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1299-1313
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume58
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019

Keywords

  • Australia
  • Burden of disease
  • Dietary risk factors
  • Non-communicable diseases
  • OECD countries

Cite this

Melaku, Yohannes Adama ; Renzaho, Andre ; Gill, Tiffany K. ; Taylor, Anne W. ; Dal Grande, Eleonora ; de Courten, Barbora ; Baye, Estifanos ; Gonzalez-Chica, David ; Hyppӧnen, Elina ; Shi, Zumin ; Riley, Malcolm ; Adams, Robert ; Kinfu, Yohannes. / Burden and trend of diet-related non-communicable diseases in Australia and comparison with 34 OECD countries, 1990–2015 : findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. In: European Journal of Nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 58, No. 3. pp. 1299-1313.
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title = "Burden and trend of diet-related non-communicable diseases in Australia and comparison with 34 OECD countries, 1990–2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015",
abstract = "Background: Diet is a major determining factor for many non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). However, evidence on diet-related NCD burden remains limited. We assessed the trends in diet-related NCDs in Australia from 1990 to 2015 and compared the results with other countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Methods: We used data and methods from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study to estimate the NCD mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to 14 dietary risk factors in Australia and 34 OECD nations. Countries were further ranked from the lowest (first) to highest (35th) burden using an age-standardized population attributable fraction (PAF). Results: In 2015, the estimated number of deaths attributable to dietary risks was 29,414 deaths [95{\%} uncertainty interval (UI) 24,697 − 34,058 or 19.7{\%} of NCD deaths] and 443,385 DALYs (95{\%} UI 377,680–511,388 or 9.5{\%} of NCD DALYs) in Australia. Young (25–49 years) and middle-age (50–69 years) male adults had a higher PAF of diet-related NCD deaths and DALYs than their female counterparts. Diets low in fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds and whole grains, but high in sodium, were the major contributors to both NCD deaths and DALYs. Overall, 42.3{\%} of cardiovascular deaths were attributable to dietary risk factors. The age-standardized PAF of diet-related NCD mortality and DALYs decreased over the study period by 28.2{\%} (from 27.0{\%} in 1990 to 19.4{\%} in 2015) and 41.0{\%} (from 14.3{\%} in 1990 to 8.4{\%} in 2015), respectively. In 2015, Australia ranked 12th of 35 examined countries in diet-related mortality. A small improvement of rank was recorded compared to the previous 25 years. Conclusions: Despite a reduction in diet-related NCD burden over 25 years, dietary risks are still the major contributors to a high burden of NCDs in Australia. Interventions targeting NCDs should focus on dietary behaviours of individuals and population groups.",
keywords = "Australia, Burden of disease, Dietary risk factors, Non-communicable diseases, OECD countries",
author = "Melaku, {Yohannes Adama} and Andre Renzaho and Gill, {Tiffany K.} and Taylor, {Anne W.} and {Dal Grande}, Eleonora and {de Courten}, Barbora and Estifanos Baye and David Gonzalez-Chica and Elina Hyppӧnen and Zumin Shi and Malcolm Riley and Robert Adams and Yohannes Kinfu",
year = "2019",
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issn = "1436-6207",
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Melaku, YA, Renzaho, A, Gill, TK, Taylor, AW, Dal Grande, E, de Courten, B, Baye, E, Gonzalez-Chica, D, Hyppӧnen, E, Shi, Z, Riley, M, Adams, R & Kinfu, Y 2019, 'Burden and trend of diet-related non-communicable diseases in Australia and comparison with 34 OECD countries, 1990–2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015', European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 1299-1313. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1656-7

Burden and trend of diet-related non-communicable diseases in Australia and comparison with 34 OECD countries, 1990–2015 : findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. / Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Renzaho, Andre; Gill, Tiffany K.; Taylor, Anne W.; Dal Grande, Eleonora; de Courten, Barbora; Baye, Estifanos; Gonzalez-Chica, David; Hyppӧnen, Elina; Shi, Zumin; Riley, Malcolm; Adams, Robert; Kinfu, Yohannes.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 58, No. 3, 01.04.2019, p. 1299-1313.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Burden and trend of diet-related non-communicable diseases in Australia and comparison with 34 OECD countries, 1990–2015

T2 - findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

AU - Melaku, Yohannes Adama

AU - Renzaho, Andre

AU - Gill, Tiffany K.

AU - Taylor, Anne W.

AU - Dal Grande, Eleonora

AU - de Courten, Barbora

AU - Baye, Estifanos

AU - Gonzalez-Chica, David

AU - Hyppӧnen, Elina

AU - Shi, Zumin

AU - Riley, Malcolm

AU - Adams, Robert

AU - Kinfu, Yohannes

PY - 2019/4/1

Y1 - 2019/4/1

N2 - Background: Diet is a major determining factor for many non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). However, evidence on diet-related NCD burden remains limited. We assessed the trends in diet-related NCDs in Australia from 1990 to 2015 and compared the results with other countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Methods: We used data and methods from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study to estimate the NCD mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to 14 dietary risk factors in Australia and 34 OECD nations. Countries were further ranked from the lowest (first) to highest (35th) burden using an age-standardized population attributable fraction (PAF). Results: In 2015, the estimated number of deaths attributable to dietary risks was 29,414 deaths [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 24,697 − 34,058 or 19.7% of NCD deaths] and 443,385 DALYs (95% UI 377,680–511,388 or 9.5% of NCD DALYs) in Australia. Young (25–49 years) and middle-age (50–69 years) male adults had a higher PAF of diet-related NCD deaths and DALYs than their female counterparts. Diets low in fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds and whole grains, but high in sodium, were the major contributors to both NCD deaths and DALYs. Overall, 42.3% of cardiovascular deaths were attributable to dietary risk factors. The age-standardized PAF of diet-related NCD mortality and DALYs decreased over the study period by 28.2% (from 27.0% in 1990 to 19.4% in 2015) and 41.0% (from 14.3% in 1990 to 8.4% in 2015), respectively. In 2015, Australia ranked 12th of 35 examined countries in diet-related mortality. A small improvement of rank was recorded compared to the previous 25 years. Conclusions: Despite a reduction in diet-related NCD burden over 25 years, dietary risks are still the major contributors to a high burden of NCDs in Australia. Interventions targeting NCDs should focus on dietary behaviours of individuals and population groups.

AB - Background: Diet is a major determining factor for many non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). However, evidence on diet-related NCD burden remains limited. We assessed the trends in diet-related NCDs in Australia from 1990 to 2015 and compared the results with other countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Methods: We used data and methods from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study to estimate the NCD mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to 14 dietary risk factors in Australia and 34 OECD nations. Countries were further ranked from the lowest (first) to highest (35th) burden using an age-standardized population attributable fraction (PAF). Results: In 2015, the estimated number of deaths attributable to dietary risks was 29,414 deaths [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 24,697 − 34,058 or 19.7% of NCD deaths] and 443,385 DALYs (95% UI 377,680–511,388 or 9.5% of NCD DALYs) in Australia. Young (25–49 years) and middle-age (50–69 years) male adults had a higher PAF of diet-related NCD deaths and DALYs than their female counterparts. Diets low in fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds and whole grains, but high in sodium, were the major contributors to both NCD deaths and DALYs. Overall, 42.3% of cardiovascular deaths were attributable to dietary risk factors. The age-standardized PAF of diet-related NCD mortality and DALYs decreased over the study period by 28.2% (from 27.0% in 1990 to 19.4% in 2015) and 41.0% (from 14.3% in 1990 to 8.4% in 2015), respectively. In 2015, Australia ranked 12th of 35 examined countries in diet-related mortality. A small improvement of rank was recorded compared to the previous 25 years. Conclusions: Despite a reduction in diet-related NCD burden over 25 years, dietary risks are still the major contributors to a high burden of NCDs in Australia. Interventions targeting NCDs should focus on dietary behaviours of individuals and population groups.

KW - Australia

KW - Burden of disease

KW - Dietary risk factors

KW - Non-communicable diseases

KW - OECD countries

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