Building resilience for food service businesses in times of crisis: a Four-F action plan

Ananya Bhattacharya, Ambika Zutshi, Ali Bavik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This paper aims to propose a “Four-F (finding facts, fostering alternates, fulfilling implementation and feasibility testing)” action plan to global food service businesses (FSB) such as restaurants (dine-in/take away) to build resilience during times of global crises. The 2019 Coronavirus disease and FSBs apply as working examples elaborating the proposed Four-F action plan with several managerial implications for the internal and external stakeholders of FSBs. Design/methodology/approach: The method involves reviewing and coding 108 articles using the PRISMA approach, then applying findings to develop the Four-F action plan integrating multiple theoretical concepts (such as stakeholder, crisis management and dynamic capabilities). Findings: There are two key findings. First, though all four crisis phases should be considered by decision-makers as part of their contingency planning process, the pre and post-crisis stages need higher attention. Second, the Four-F action plan provides specific recommendations to FSBs stakeholders (consumers, suppliers and government) for each crisis phase (pre-crisis, crisis emergence, crisis occurrence and post-crisis). Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that has incorporated multiple theoretical frameworks (stakeholder theory, crisis management and dynamic capabilities) within the FSBs context and provided the Four-F action plan for decision-makers to understand and manage crisis phases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3400-3441
Number of pages42
JournalInternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Crisis management
  • Food service businesses
  • Management
  • Restaurants
  • Stakeholder management

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