Torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization are recognized methods of thermochemical pretreatment of biomass with differing main applications of the upgraded product. The evaluation of upgraded wheat straw as a potential biofuel for gasification and combustion systems showed some remarkable benefits. Both torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization showed a significant increase of the gross calorific value (GCV) (+11%-58% increase). The values of the higher temperature (250°C and 300°C) were in the range of the GCV of lignite, a typical industrial gasification and combustion feedstock. Hydrothermally carbonized products showed a lower release of 74KCl+ and 36HCl+ compared to raw wheat straw and torrefied wheat straw samples.