Breaking through a roadblock in prostate cancer research: An update on human model systems

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Prostate cancer is a prevalent disease that affects the aging male population. Whilst there have been significant advances of our biological understanding of the disease, clinical translation of promising agents continues to lag behind. In part, this is due to a paucity of relevant experimental and pre-clinical models required to further develop effective prevention and therapeutic strategies. Genetically modified cell lines fail to entirely represent the genetic and molecular diversity of primary human specimens, particularly from localised disease. Furthermore, primary prostate cancer tissues are extremely difficult to grow in the laboratory and virtually all human models, whether they grow as xenografts in immune-deficient animals or as cell cultures, are genetically modified by the investigator or derived from patients with advanced metastatic disease. In this review, we discuss the latest advances and improvements to current methods of xenografting human primary prostate cancer, and their potential application to translational research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Steroids and cancer .
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122 - 131
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Issue number3-5
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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