Brain neuromodulation techniques: A review

Philip M. Lewis, Richard H. Thomson, Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, Paul B. Fitzgerald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleOtherpeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


The modulation of brain function via the application of weak direct current was first observed directly in the early 19th century. In the past 3 decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation have undergone clinical translation, offering alternatives to pharmacological treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Further development of novel neuromodulation techniques employing ultrasound, micro-scale magnetic fields and optogenetics is being propelled by a rapidly improving understanding of the clinical and experimental applications of artificially stimulating or depressing brain activity in human health and disease. With the current rapid growth in neuromodulation technologies and applications, it is timely to review the genesis of the field and the current state of the art in this area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)406-421
Number of pages16
JournalThe Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2016


  • bionics
  • brain
  • cognitive
  • implant
  • neuromodulation
  • neuropsychiatry

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