Brain-computer integration: A framework for the design of brain-computer interfaces from an integrations perspective

Nathan Semertzidis, Fabio Zambetta, Florian "Floyd" Mueller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems hold the potential to foster human flourishing and self-actualization. However, we believe contemporary BCI system design approaches unnecessarily limit these potentialities as they are approached from a traditional interaction perspective, producing command-response experiences. This article proposes to go beyond "interaction" and toward a paradigm of human-computer integration. The potential of this paradigm is demonstrated through three prototypes: Inter-Dream, a system that integrates with the brain's autonomic physiological processes to drive users toward healthy sleep states; Neo-Noumena, a system that integrates with the user's affective neurophysiology to augment the interpersonal communication of emotion; and PsiNet, a system that integrates interpersonal brain activity to amplify human connection. Studies of these prototypes demonstrate the benefits of the integration paradigm in realizing the multifaceted benefits of BCI systems, and this work presents the brain-computer integration framework to help guide designers of future BCI integrations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number86
Number of pages48
JournalACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sept 2023


  • Brain-computer interfaces
  • EEG
  • human-computer integration

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