Bothersome menopausal symptoms amongst postmenopausal Iranian women

E. Fooladi, R. J. Bell, M. Masoumi, M. Azizi, Z. Atarod, S. R. Davis

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the impact of menopause on middle-eastern women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 1520 women, aged 40–64 years, living in Sari, Northern Iran, recruited by multistage cluster sampling between October 2016 and April 2017. All women completed the Menopause Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Results: Of all the women, 54.5% were perimenopausal or postmenopausal. The prevalences of any vasomotor symptom (VMS) and moderate-severely bothersome VMS were greatest for postmenopausal women aged <55 years (66.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 59.9–72.3% and 13.5%, 95% CI 9.6–18.6%, respectively). Having moderate-severe VMS was associated with moderate-severe depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.9; 95% CI 1.6–5.2; p < 0.001). Symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) were reported by 41.1% (95% CI 37.4–45.0%) of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, with 22.9% (95% CI 19.8–26.3%) reporting their symptoms as moderate-severely bothersome. In women with moderate-severe VMS, the proportion with both moderate-severe depressive symptoms and moderate-severe VVA symptoms (12.1%) was four times that in women with no or mild VMS (3.3%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: One in seven perimenopausal and postmenopausal women has moderate-severely bothersome VMS and few women receive appropriate therapy. The reporting of moderate-severe VMS should alert clinicians to the likelihood of significant concurrent VVA and depressive symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)586-593
Number of pages8
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 26 Aug 2018


  • cross-sectional
  • Iranian women
  • Menopausal symptoms
  • midlife women
  • population-based
  • risk factors

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