To assess the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck and menopausal status, age, physical variables, and lifestyle and gynecological factors. BMD and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and inhibin levels were measured in 167 women born in Australia, aged 46-57 years, who had no record of receiving hormone replacement therapy. Using the premenopausal group as a baseline, the FSH level was higher in peri- and postmenopausal subjects (p < 0.0005), and estradiol and inhibin levels in the postmenopausal women were lower (p < 0.0005). Mean (±SE) lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were 15 ± 3% and 10 ± 3% lower, respectively, in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. Lumbar spine BMD decreased with increasing age in perimenopausal women only (p < 0.005), and femoral neck BMD decreased with increasing age in the pre-, peri(p < 0.05) and postmenopausal women. The difference between femoral neck BMD in the pre- and postmenopausal women was explained by the difference in age between these groups, whereas for lumbar spine BMD the Menopausal status was an additional determining factor. There was a negative effect of smoking on femoral neck BMD (p < 0.05) in postmenopausal women. In the perimenopausal decade the femoral neck BMD is primarily dependent on age, whereas lumbar pine BMD is dependent on both age and menopausal status.
- Bone mineral density
- Follicle-stimulating hormone