The associations between the aortic dimensions (of the aortic sinus, aortic annulus and aortic arch) and physiological variables have not been established in the Chinese population. The present study examined the associations among physiological variables to determine the aortic root and arch dimensions echocardiographically. The diameters of the aortic sinus, annulus and arch were measured in 1,010 subjects via 2-D echocardiography with a 3.5-MHz transducer in a trans-thoracic position. The images of the aortic sinus and aortic annulus were obtained from a standard parasternal long-axis view. The maximum diameter of the valve orifice was measured at the end of systole. The aortic arch dimension was visualized in the long-axis using a suprasternal notch window and the maximum transverse diameter was measured. Epidata 3.0, Excel 2007 and SPSS version 17.0 were used to collect and analyze the data. A total of 1,010 subjects were enrolled. The mean age was 55.0+/-17.0 years (range of 18 to 90 years). The body surface area (BSA) was the best predictor of all the studied physiological variables and may be used to predict aortic sinus, annulus and arch dimensions independently (r=0.54, 0.37 and 0.39, respectively). Gender, blood pressure, age and BSA are significant predictors of the aortic dimensions. Of these, BSA was the best predictor.