Blast damage assessment of symmetrical box-shaped underground tunnel according to peak particle velocity (PPV) and single degree of freedom (SDOF) criteria

Mohamed H. Mussa, Azrul A. Mutalib, Roszilah Hamid, Sudharshan N. Raman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to determine the reliability of the damage criteria that was adopted by the peak particle velocity (PPV) method and the single degree of freedom (SDOF) approach to assess the damage level of a box-shaped underground tunnel. An advanced arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) technique available in LS-DYNA software was used to simulate a symmetrical underground tunnel that was subjected to a surface detonation. The validation results of peak pressure into the soil revealed a good consistency with the TM5-855-1 manual within differences that were much less than previous numerical studies. The pressure contours revealed that the blast waves travelled into the soil in a hemispherical shape and the peak reflected the pressure of the tunnel that occurred immediately before the incident pressure reached its highest value. The assessment results proved that the criteria of the above methods could efficiently predict the damage level of a box-shaped tunnel under different circumstances of explosive charge weight and lining thickness at a depth of 4m within slight differences that were observed during van and small delivery truck (SDT) explosions. However, the efficiency of both the methods was varied with the increase of burial depth. Whereas, using the PPV method significantly underestimated or overestimated the damage level of the tunnel, especially during SDT and container explosions with a lining thickness of 250 mm at burial depths of 6 and 8 m, respectively, the damage level that was obtained by the SDOF method greatly matched with the observed failure modes of the tunnel. Furthermore, new boundary conditions and equations were proposed for the damage criteria of the PVV method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number158
Number of pages20
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 14 May 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • ALE analysis
  • Blast load
  • Box-shaped tunnel
  • Damage levels
  • SDOF approach

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